| Read Time: 3 minutes | Personal Injury Lawyers

Negligence Elements: Causation and Damages

Most personal injury claims are based on the legal concept of negligence. In order to succeed in your personal injury claim or case you need to prove negligence in accordance with the negligence elements. This article will discuss the negligence elements: causation and damages; and how they work in a personal injury case. There are four negligence elements that must be proven in a personal injury case in order to succeed. These four elements are: Duty of care Breach of duty of care Causation Damages It is important to note that even if the plaintiff is able to only prove three out of the four elements he or she will lose their case. As such, speak to a car accident attorney in Bakersfield for legal advice and representation. As noted in the previous article, establishing the duty of care and the breach of duty of care is not always a straightforward determination. There are a number of other factors that may affect these two elements. According to one legal dictionary [What is the Legal Definition of Causation? | WKW] causation “refers to the relationship of cause and effect between one event or action and the result. It is the act or process that produces an effect.” Put simply, causation describes the reason something happens. Therefore, it is not enough to simply show that the defendant was negligent but it is important, in personal injury cases, to go forward and show that as a result of the defendant’s negligence that something happened. For example,if someone is speeding,but their speeding does  not cause the accident,  then it may not matter  that they were  being negligent.  Every case is different, and proving causation can sometimes be difficult. The point is that there must be a link between the negligent act and the damages suffered; as a result, near misses do not warrant a personal injury claim. There are two elements of causation: Factual cause – the test used to prove factual cause is the ‘but for’ test [But-for test | Wex | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute (cornell.edu)]. “This test asks, but for the existence of X, would Y have occurred.”  For example:  If he hadn’t of run the red light,  there never would have been an accident. Proximate causation – this looks at whether the actions of the defendant are sufficiently linked to your injuries.  Sometimes there may  be so many other factors that a remote cause will  not be considered the legal  cause.  For example, if John’s  mother had never had him, there never would have been an accident.  Still, even though John’s birth may have been a “cause” of the accident, the connection to the accident is so remote that it won’t be recognized as a legal cause of the accident. A common defense for causation is shifting fault to the plaintiff. If it is found that some fault is held by the plaintiff, then whatever percentage fault the plaintiff holds will be deducted from their compensation. Damages are the legal term referring to any physical and emotional injuries, property damage and loss of income the plaintiff suffers as a result of the incident or accident. This is basically the last element of negligence as its focus is directly on the compensation a plaintiff will  receive for their losses. Some examples of damages include: Lost wages – this includes actual income lost and vacation time taken to attend to matters relating to injuries suffered, such as the inability to  work  due to  injuries, as well  as  likely to be lost in the future Pain and suffering – this includes elements like mental anguish, loss of consortium, loss of enjoyment of life Property damage – this includes damage to a vehicle, the contents of a vehicle, etc. Medical expenses – these include medical expenses already incurred as well as future expenses that will be incurred.    

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| Read Time: 3 minutes | Employment Law

Negligence Elements: Duty of Care and Breach of Duty

The majority of personal injury claims are based on the legal concept of negligence. In order to succeed in your personal injury claim or case you need to prove negligence in accordance with the negligence elements. This article will discuss the negligence elements, duty of care and breach of duty; and how they work in a personal injury case. There are four negligence elements that must be proven in a personal injury case in order to succeed. These four elements are: Duty of care Breach of duty of care Causation Damages It is important to note that even if the plaintiff is able to only prove three out of the four elements he or she will lose their case. As such, it is advisable to speak to a car accident lawyer in Bakersfield [https://www.youngwooldridge.com/bakersfield-car-accident-attorney/] for legal advice and representation in your specific personal injury claim. Firstly, if you and your attorney decide to settle the claim, the issue of fault does not need to be proven. However, it is the key element in all personal injury cases, as the at-fault person is the one who pays the damages of the victim.  You are not  likely to get a settlement of a case where you cannot prove the other  driver was at fault, or negligent. The term duty of care basically means having an obligation to not injure another person or to put them in the line of danger. When put like that, generally every person owes another person some measure of care, especially while driving. In some cases, it is difficult to determine what duty of care is owed to another person; this is mainly because there are no laws in place stipulating how a person ought to act. However, in other cases there are laws set out giving a standard of the duty of care. For example, the Vehicle Code [California Vehicle Code :: 2005 California Code :: California Law :: California Code :: US Codes and Statutes :: US Law :: Justia] spells out how drivers ought to conduct themselves while driving. When it comes to other circumstances and incidents the law requires the act of reason on the party that owed the duty of care. For example, a grocery store owner is required to take ‘reasonable’ steps to ensure customer safety; such reasonable steps might include checking for floor spills on a regular basis, warning about known spills with brightly colored cones,  and cleaning them up as quickly as possible. The breach of duty could be a result of a careless act, or sometimes a failure to act where appropriate. In simple terms this means that the person breached their duty of care by creating or allowing a dangerous situation over and above the normal level of risk an individual may encounter. In car accident cases, it is often easy to determine whether an individual breached their duty of care. For example, roads and highways have speed limits posted, so a driver’s duty of care maty involve observing the speed limit.  Determining whether a driver was going above the speed limit may be established easily through the testimony of eyewitness statements as to the car’s speed rate. If the speeding contributed to the accident, then the third element that is needed  to  be  proven, causation, will also be present.  Or, in another example, a driver has the duty to stop at a red light. Therefore, it would be a breach of the duty of care if the vehicle entered the intersection when the light was red. This also can be determined by eyewitness statements. However, in other situations determining the breach of duty of care is much more difficult because compliance with the duty is not the only element that must be taken into consideration. For example,  if two cars collide in an uncontrolled  intersection it might  not be clear who had the right  of way.    

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| Read Time: 2 minutes | Personal Injury Lawyer

The Leading Common Causes of Vehicle Accidents

The dawn of the 21st century introduced ever-improving technology even 21 years later. This is especially so when it comes to vehicle safety. To ensure such safety millions of vehicles are recalled annually. Unfortunately, despite technological advancements and vehicle recalls the United States averages about 6 million car accidents every year. One may wonder with all the improvements in technology and vehicle safety emphasized in vehicle manufacturing, what are the common causes of vehicle accidents. This article will discuss some of the leading common causes of vehicle accidents. If you are involved in a car accident in Bakersfield CA [https://www.youngwooldridge.com/bakersfield-car-accident-attorney] contact a law firm with great personal injury attorneys. It must be noted that there are generally two general categories that cover the  most common  causes of car accidents. The first category is one relating to driver error, while the second category takes into account external causes that are no one person’s direct fault; for example, brake failure or mountain lions or deer crossing the road. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) research shows that driver error is by far the leading cause of vehicle accidents in the United States. The most common forms of driver error include the following: Distracted driving – the term basically means anything and everything that takes the driver’s focus, eyes and mind from the road and/or hands off the steering wheel. This can be something as simple as talking to a passenger or reading billboards on the side of the road, or trying to  eat that burger while driving. However, the most common driver distraction is the use of a cell phone or other electronic devices. A study conducted by the National Safety Council[mental-distraction-myth-busters.pdf.aspx (nsc.org)] stated that driver distraction is so common because of the “myth of multitasking” while driving. The study shows that the human brain is incapable of performing two important tasks at the same time and instead ‘micro tasks’; meaning it handles only one task at a time between completing tasks. As a result, none of the tasks are being done effectively. Therefore, there is a high chance of causing a hazard when driving and doing any other task. DUI – the NHTSA statistics show that more than 40% of all vehicle fatalities are as a result of alcohol. Driving under the influence results in slow reaction times, poor vision and decision-making. Fatigue – one of the most dangerous causes of accidents is driver fatigue. In fact, it poses the same dangers as driving under the influence. When a person is fatigued, they are more likely to fall asleep while driving; however, it does affect a driver’s reaction times when responding to road hazards. Decision making – when driving a driver is faced with many decisions, such as whether to speed up, overtake a vehicle, tailgate or slow down. When such decisions are made in unsafe conditions or bad decisions are made this could result in a collision. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) almost one in three car accident deaths in the United States involves speeding. Weather conditions – bad weather conditions that affect road surfaces and visibility also play a role in car accidents. A vehicle may be traveling at the posted speed limit in bad weather conditions and still cause an accident.

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| Read Time: 2 minutes | Business Law

California Laws on Driving and Cellphone Use

Distracted driving is one of the most common causes of accidents. This has become worse with the use of cell phones while driving. The state of California made it illegal for a driver to use a hand-held cell phone or to text while driving. This article will discuss the laws and penalties of cellphone use while driving in the state of California. There are a number of laws in place that have been provided for when it comes to the use of cell phones while driving. In fact, California has a number of laws that ban cellphone use while driving [Distracted Driving | Office of Traffic Safety (ca.gov)]. Despite the assumption that an individual may be able to multitask, science has proven that it is impossible to multitask and give equal attention to the tasks that are being carried out Instead, the brain allows one task to be fully carried out while the other is on ‘standby’. As is the case with driving and texting, one of these tasks suffers at the expense of the other. If you are involved and injured in an accident where the other driver was on their cell phone, speak to Bakersfield auto accident lawyers today. Generally, most states prohibit the use of hand-held cell phones to less experienced drivers and place restrictions on more experienced drivers. However, the state of California bans all drivers from using hand-held cell phones while driving. However, this ban does not extend to passengers; they are free to use their cellphones as they wish while in a vehicle. Further, this law extends to drivers in California regardless if they live in a different state or not. That being said, it must be noted that there exist a few exceptions with regard to the ban. These exceptions include the following: When making emergency calls to law enforcement agencies, medical providers, the fire department, or other emergency service agencies Use is allowed for persons operating authorized emergency vehicles and persons driving vehicles on private property The state of California uses a point system for moving violations, as of July 1, 2021 violations linked to the use of hand-held cell phones while driving will result in one point if it is within a 36-month period of a previous distracted driving offense. In addition, persons who violate the handheld cellphone ban will be subjected to fines. For a first offense, the base fine is $20, for a second and subsequent offense, the base fine is $50. However, it must be noted that these are court costs and other fees, and therefore it is likely the actual amount an offender may be required to pay will be much more than the base fine. For example, it is likely that the expected total charges in a first violation will be more than $150; while in the case of a second or subsequent violation the total charges will likely be over $250. Unlike the handheld cellphone ban, the rules associated with hands-free cell phone use depend on the age of a driver. More restrictions are imposed on drivers younger than 18. Texting while driving is prohibited.  

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| Read Time: 2 minutes | Personal Injury

Common Bicycle Accident Causes

A bicycle ride provides exercise as well as being recreational. Unfortunately, the percentage of highway deaths relating to non-vehicle occupants, including bicycle riders, has increased from 13% in 2003 to 17% in 2012. There are a number of causes that are common to bicycle accidents. This article will discuss some of the common causes of such accidents as well as how to avoid them. It must be noted that when an accident happens between a vehicle and a bicycle it is the bicycle rider that is most likely to be injured, or, in worst case scenarios, killed. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NTHSA) [Bicycle Safety | NHTSA] in 2019 alone there were 846 bicyclists killed in traffic accidents. In addition, there were also 49,000 injuries sustained in 2012. If you have been injured as a result of a bicycle accident, ensure that you contact a Bakersfield bicycle accident attorney  for legal advice and representation. It is important to take note of common causes of bicycle accidents in order to avoid bicycle accidents, some of the common causes are: Distracted riding – This is similar to distracted driving, however, when a cyclist takes his mind and or eyes off the road in front of him, this may prove to be fatal. A large number of cyclists look down at their phones, music devices or other mobile devices while they ride. Others are confident enough to text, email, surf the web or do other activities on their mobile device while riding their bicycles. Such distractions can lead to accidents. Speeding – Generally, bicyclists do not ride as fast as cars do, however, that doesn’t mean that bicyclists are unable to ride as fast as possible. It is when a bicyclist chooses to speed that can lead to serious injuries and death when an accident occurs with motor vehicles. Further, other elements that increase the seriousness of injuries associated with an accident that occurs when a bicyclist is speeding are when the road and terrain are in bad condition, or when the weather conditions are also bad. Such factors must be taken into account when deciding a safe speed to use when riding. Too close for comfort – It is of the utmost importance that drivers leave a minimum of three feet between themselves and other vehicles. At least twenty states require motorists to give a three-foot space between their vehicles and a bicyclist when passing in the same lane. However, the bicyclists shouldn’t assume that vehicles will leave a lot of space for them, therefore, it is much safer for the cyclist to use a shoulder lane or sidewalk instead of riding their bike at the edge of the roadway. In addition, it is important that cyclists know which highways and freeways, as well  as which sidewalks, do not allow cyclists on them. Road rules – In most states bicyclists are considered as vehicles, as a result, they are subject to the same rights and responsibilities as other vehicles on the road. Therefore, they must obey traffic lights and stop signs and other road signals. Cars Don’t See You – it is unfortunate that people driving cars don’t always look out for bicycles, motorcycles or even pedestrians and can have big blind spots when it comes to bike riders.  Use extreme caution, especially in intersections.

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| Read Time: 2 minutes | Personal Injury Attorneys

Thinking of a Hit and Run?

It’s in our nature to want to run away in a stressful situation, but that being our first impulse is defintely not be the best thing to do when it comes to a car accident scene. According to the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, one hit-and-run crash is likely to happen every minute in the United States. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration reported that there were 2,049 deaths caused by hit-and-run accidents in 2016; this is the highest recorded number ever in the history of the country. A report provided by the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety stated that in 2016, 337 deaths were caused by hit-and-runs in the state of California. According to I drive safely [What Exactly is a Hit and Run Accident? (idrivesafely.com)], a hit-and-run accident is “any accident where a vehicle hits a person, object or vehicle and the driver knowingly leaves the scene without providing their information.” It must be noted that some states include a collision with an animal as part of the definition of a hit-and-run. In other states, it is considered a hit-and-run if you leave the scene of the accident whether or not you caused it. It must be noted that because the hit and run accidents have become so common the key advice any Bakersfield injury attorney will provide with regards to being involved in a vehicle accident is: “Don’t leave the scene of the accident!” This is because there are many criminal penalties tied to hit and run accidents; however, these vary from one state to the next. Many states provide for hit and run offenses with the penalties of either a misdemeanor or a felony. However, this is dependent on the circumstances of your case.  It could  also be used against you as evidence that you were at fault for a car crash. If a hit-and-run is classified as a felony, the accident likely resulted in some type of injury to a person, whether the person injured was a pedestrian or an occupant of a vehicle. Penalties associated with a felony hit and run are severe and many states impose fines between $5,000 and $20,000. And the prospect of being imprisoned as punishment for a felony hit-and-run is very high; however, this is mainly determined by the circumstances of the case. While a hit and run can be classified as a misdemeanor, the punishment associated with it still may be a fine of up to $5,000 and up to one year of jail time. Other penalties imposed for hit and run accidents are administrative penalties linked to your driver’s license. Such penalties are imposed by the state’s Department of Motor Vehicles. And this is regardless of whether it is for a felony hit-and-run or misdemeanor hit-and-run. Generally, the penalties may be an automatic suspension of your driver’s license. This is often for a period of six months or so, while in some states it may be up to 3 years. This shows the serious nature of hit-and-run accidents and their effect on the perpetrators.  

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| Read Time: 2 minutes | Personal Injury

What is your ‘duty of care’?

In personal injury cases, the issue of liability boils down to who was careful and who was careless. Determining fault in a personal injury accident claim is often done under the legal theory of negligence. One of the four elements of determining negligence is the duty of care; this article will discuss the ‘duty of care’ in relation to fault in an accident. Negligence is defined by the Cornell Law School Legal Information Institute [Negligence | Wex | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute (cornell.edu)] as “a failure to behave with the level of care that someone of ordinary prudence would have exercised under the same circumstances.” There are four elements that must be proven in a personal injury negligence case, these are: Duty of care Breach of duty of care Injuries Causation Duty of care is whereby the law requires an individual to act in a reasonably careful manner. With regards to a vehicle driver, the duty of care requires that they use reasonable caution in all aspects of operating their vehicle. This is an obvious duty of care and it is often outlined in the DMV booklet and the tests carried out for an individual to receive a vehicle driving license. According to the Cornell Law School definition, negligence involves behaving with ‘a level of care’, such a level of care can be rephrased as taking ‘reasonable care’. The basic rule in negligence is that individuals must take reasonable care so as to avoid injury or harm to others. However, it must be noted that when it comes to various forms of personal injury cases, reasonable care varies with regards to time, place, and the relationship between the people. With regards to motorcycle accidents, reasonable care is expected from all road users at all times and on any road. If you require more information as to who was negligent in your motorcycle accident case speak to a Bakersfield motorcycle accident lawyer today. While the statement, “reasonable care is expected of all road users” may be truthful, to some extent it is vague. Thus, the question arises as to what legal duties drivers have that would qualify as reasonable care. Some examples of legal duties each driver has include the following: Reasonable speed – All drivers have the duty to drive their vehicle at a reasonable speed for the conditions. Such speed does not necessarily have to be the posted speed limit or just below it, rather, a driver needs to be prudent in determining the best speed based on circumstances relating to the existing traffic, weather conditions at the time, visibility, and the road they are traveling on. As a result, a driver may be found to be negligent for driving at the posted speed limit in bad weather or with low visibility. Keeping control of your vehicle – A driver is expected to maintain control of their vehicle at all times. A driver may be found to be negligent if they lose control of their vehicle for any reason. Driver-related state law – Every state has motor vehicle laws that govern how drivers are expected to conduct themselves on the road. Violating such laws presumes negligence.  For example, failing to stop at a traffic signal is a violation of law.

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| Read Time: 2 minutes | Safety

Was Negligence the Cause of Your Car Accident?

In any car accident incident, the most common question asked is who was at fault. This is a key question as the person who is at fault for the accident is required by law to compensate for any losses suffered by other parties involved in the accident. This article will discuss vehicle accidents that are caused by negligence. One of the most common legal concepts relied upon when proving fault in a car accident incident is that of negligence. According to the Cornell Law School Legal Information Institute [Negligence | Wex | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute (cornell.edu)] negligence is defined as “a failure to behave with the level of care that someone of ordinary prudence would have exercised under the same circumstances. The behavior usually consists of actions, but can also consist of omissions when there is some duty to act.” So, to put it into context negligence is any careless conduct or behavior which results in the harm of another person. When looking at an accident involving a vehicle a person may be said to have acted negligently if s/he did something that s/he should not have done. For example, if a driver runs a red light or speeds. Or, it may be where the driver failed to do something that they should have done. For example, failing to yield or not switching on the headlights while driving at night. It is important to seek legal advice from an experienced Bakersfield car accident lawyer to understand negligence in your case. Another important aspect of negligence is the issue of using reasonable care; this is necessary in order to avoid injury to other road users; that is passengers, pedestrians, and motorists. In instances where a driver fails to use reasonable care and another person is injured as a result, that driver can be held financially liable for the individual’s injuries and any other losses. The legal concept of negligence is used when there is a dispute with regards to who was at fault for a car accident. This is applicable whether the car accident claim is part of an insurance claims process or is being handled in court. It must be noted that the person making the claim, that is the plaintiff, has the burden of proving that the defendant was negligent. With regards to a car accident lawsuit, the plaintiff needs to establish the following: There exists a legal requirement for the defendant to be reasonably careful – driving law requires that drivers use reasonable caution while operating their vehicles. The defendant was not careful – It must be established that the defendant violated their duty under the law of being careful (i.e., breach of the duty of care). Determining this point evaluates what a reasonable person would have done under the same circumstances in comparison with the driver’s actions. The conduct of the defendant caused the plaintiff’s injuries – There must be evidence that the plaintiff was injured as a result of the defendant’s actions. Near misses are not considered in a car accident claim. Damages–The victim   of the accident must have been injured in some way to receive compensation.

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| Read Time: 2 minutes | Personal Injury Attorneys

Common Causes of Bicycle Accidents

Thanks to the beautiful warm year-round weather in California, this state has one of the largest populations of bicycle riders in the country. Unfortunately, in recent years there has been a spike in the number of bicycle accidents in the state. This article will discuss some common causes of bicycle accidents. According to one US News and World Report [Bike Fatalities Hit 25-Year High in California, Rise Nationwide | Healthiest Communities | US News] traffic accidents killed 455 cyclists in California between the years 2016 and 2018; this is according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). “The ratio is now 3.9 bike accident fatalities per every 1 million people, this is the highest rate recorded over any three-year period since the mid-1990s. 516 cyclists died in traffic accidents from 2016 to 2018; which is a rate of 2.6 per 1 million people.” This begs the question as to what is causing a spike in bicycle accidents? It is important to note that bicycle accidents happen on public roads as a result of many different factors and circumstances. However, bicycle accidents that appear to be the most common are those between bicyclists and vehicles. If you are involved in one, contact a Bakersfield bicycle accident attorney [https://www.youngwooldridge.com/] today. Data provided by the NHTSA stated that 96% of bicycle riders killed in the year 2017 were involved in a single-vehicle accident. Some of the most common causes of bicycle and vehicle accidents include the following: Distracted driving – this is one of the most common causesof car accidents and this includes those involving bicycles. When using the term distracted driving it refers to anything or activity that draws the driver’s hands off the steering wheel, eyes away from the road and/or mind off driving. Any such distraction can result in a driver failing to take note of something critical, likely to happen or the change in road conditions that require immediate action in order to avoid an accident or incident. It must be noted though that being distracted is not limited to a vehicle driver, even bicyclists may become distracted and fail to pay attention to what is happening around them. Reckless driving – reckless driving or road rage are where a driver intentionally drives in a dangerous way. By such driving they not only endanger themselves but every other road user. This becomes even more dangerous when the recipient of such road rage is a cyclist and can quickly turn into a deadly situation. Some forms of road rage or aggression can be manifested in the following: racing excessive honking cutting someone off blocking the bike lane yelling or the use of inappropriate hand gestures Not yielding when necessary – it is important to note that bicycle riders are not second-class road citizens. Rather, they share the same rights as other road users including vehicle drivers. Therefore, when a vehicle driver fails to take note of other vehicles including bicycles this may result in an accident. In other scenarios, drivers may fail to yield to bicycles when entering an intersection, merging lanes, etc. All this results in collisions which are avoidable.

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| Read Time: 2 minutes | Employment Law

Common Causes of Big Rig Truck Accidents

Any vehicle accident can lead to trauma, however, one of the scariest accidents anyone may be involved in is with a big rig truck. There are many incidents whereby vehicles are squashed, smashed, run off the road or collide with big rig trucks. All these incidents can occur as a result of a number of different factors. This article will focus on some of the common causes of car accidents involving big rig trucks. According to info bloom [What is a Big Rig? (With pictures) (infobloom.com)], “the term big rig is a colloquialism for a semi-truck or a tractor trailer, a two-part truck that consists of both a tractor, the truck portion with the engine, and a trailer.” Another common term for big rig is semi-truck and includes 10 to 18 wheelers. As shown by the definition these are huge vehicles that may take up the space of one or two smaller vehicles. There are a number of factors that may contribute to a vehicle accident; if you were involved in one, contact a Bakersfield big rig accident lawyer [https://www.youngwooldridge.com/truck-accident/] today for legal advice and representation. Some common big rig accident causes include: Fatigue and drugs – generally when a driver is tired, they may fall asleep, fail to pay attention or misjudge driving conditions. When a driver is drowsy or tired it directly affects their ability to control the truck, impairs their judgement, slackens their reaction time and could stop a driver frommaking safe decisions. It is not uncommon for truck drivers to suffer fatigue as a result of long driving hours. Many trucking companies allegedly push for truck drivers to meet deadlines that may require them to drive longer than the legal hours they are required. This results in driver fatigue and accidents. Some drivers use performance enhancing drugs to stay awake longer. However, federal regulations make it a must for trucking companies to test their drivers for alcohol and drugs as part of a condition of their employment. Such drug tests are carried out randomly for drivers who are on duty. More so such tests must be conducted when a driver is involved in any accidents that result in a fatality. Driver error – the cost paid by a small vehicle when the driver makes an error may be skidding off to the side of the road. However, the consequences of driver error when driving a truck are more severe. When a driver takes a curve too fast, speeds excessively or fails to monitor blind spots this could result in a collision, jackknifing or the truck rolling onto its side. Equipment problems – a common cause of truck accidents is mechanical or equipment failures. Manufacturing defects or design errors can result in an accident. Where equipment is not properly maintained this could lead to accidents. Mechanical problems can include depowering the front brakes so as to reduce the expense of the wear and tear of the tires and brakes. Failure to load and secure cargo properly could contribute to a truck rolling over. Where the trailer is not properly attached to the truck, this increases the chances and risks of the vehicle jackknifing.

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